Sodium oligomannate activates the enteroendocrine-vagal afferent pathways in APP/PS1 mice

Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2024 May 3. doi: 10.1038/s41401-024-01293-w. Online ahead of print.


Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) and vagal afferent neurons constitute functional sensory units of the gut, which have been implicated in bottom-up modulation of brain functions. Sodium oligomannate (GV-971) has been shown to improve cognitive functions in murine models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and recently approved for the treatment of AD patients in China. In this study, we explored whether activation of the EECs-vagal afferent pathways was involved in the therapeutic effects of GV-971. We found that an enteroendocrine cell line RIN-14B displayed spontaneous calcium oscillations due to TRPA1-mediated calcium entry; perfusion of GV-971 (50, 100 mg/L) concentration-dependently enhanced the calcium oscillations in EECs. In ex vivo murine jejunum preparation, intraluminal infusion of GV-971 (500 mg/L) significantly increased the spontaneous and distension-induced discharge rate of the vagal afferent nerves. In wild-type mice, administration of GV-971 (100 mg· kg-1 ·d-1, i.g. for 7 days) significantly elevated serum serotonin and CCK levels and increased jejunal afferent nerve activity. In 7-month-old APP/PS1 mice, administration of GV-971 for 12 weeks significantly increased jejunal afferent nerve activity and improved the cognitive deficits in behavioral tests. Sweet taste receptor inhibitor Lactisole (0.5 mM) and the TRPA1 channel blocker HC-030031 (10 µM) negated the effects of GV-971 on calcium oscillations in RIN-14B cells as well as on jejunal afferent nerve activity. In APP/PS1 mice, co-administration of Lactisole (30 mg ·kg-1 ·d-1, i.g. for 12 weeks) attenuated the effects of GV-971 on serum serotonin and CCK levels, vagal afferent firing, and cognitive behaviors. We conclude that GV-971 activates sweet taste receptors and TRPA1, either directly or indirectly, to enhance calcium entry in enteroendocrine cells, resulting in increased CCK and 5-HT release and consequent increase of vagal afferent activity. GV-971 might activate the EECs-vagal afferent pathways to modulate cognitive functions.

PMID:38702501 | DOI:10.1038/s41401-024-01293-w