Autonomic Neuronal Modulations in Cardiac Arrhythmias: Current Concepts and Emerging Therapies

Physiol Behav. 2024 Mar 23:114527. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2024.114527. Online ahead of print.


The pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia that result in cardiac arrhythmias is related to the sustained complicated mechanisms of the autonomic nervous system. Atrial fibrillation is when the heart beats irregularly, and ventricular arrhythmias are rapid and inconsistent heart rhythms, which involves many factors including the autonomic nervous system. It’s a complex topic that requires careful exploration. Cultivation of speculative knowledge on atrial fibrillation; the irregular rhythm of the heart and ventricular arrhythmias; rapid oscillating waves resulting from mistakenly inconsistent P waves, and the inclusion of an autonomic nervous system is an inconceivable approach toward clinical intricacies. Autonomic modulation, therefore, acquires new expansions and conceptions of appealing therapeutic intelligence to prevent cardiac arrhythmia. Notably, autonomic modulation uses the neural tissue’s flexibility to cause remodeling and, hence, provide therapeutic effects. In addition, autonomic modulation techniques included stimulation of the vagus nerve and tragus, renal denervation, cardiac sympathetic denervation, and baroreceptor activation treatment. Strong preclinical evidence and early human studies support the annihilation of cardiac arrhythmias by sympathetic and parasympathetic systems to transmigrate the cardiac myocytes and myocardium as efficient determinants at the cellular and physiological levels. However, the goal of this study is to draw attention to these promising early pre-clinical and clinical arrhythmia treatment options that use autonomic modulation as a therapeutic modality to conquer the troublesome process of irregular heart movements. Additionally, we provide a summary of the numerous techniques for measuring autonomic tone such as heart rate oscillations and its association with cutaneous sympathetic nerve activity appear to be substitute indicators and predictors of the outcome of treatment.

PMID:38527577 | DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2024.114527